Typography sampler project

Introduction
Typography (‘writing with type’) is the study or science of manipulating alphabetic characters. Even though visual symbols are becoming more popular, prevalent, and necessary, most of the information humans receive is still in the form of the written word. Sophistication in type literacy is especially necessary due to the greater variety of options available in desktop publishing. Designers manipulate letterforms to create a more efficient understanding of a message. Designers need to understand the many nuances of typography to better manipulate letterforms, words, and paragraphs to create a more efficient understanding of a message.
“Great text typography doesn't get noticed because the reader is too busy reading the message.”

Terms to define
alignment, arm, leg, ascender, bar, baseline, bowl, bracket, cap height, condensed, counter, descender, diminuendo, drop cap, em-dash, en-dash, extended, family, flourish, font, hanging punctuation, hot type/cold type, hyphenation, indent, initial cap, italic, justified, kerning, leading, legibility, letterspacing, ligature, oblique, oldstyle figures, orphan/widow, parenthesis/brackets, point size, raised cap, reverse, serif, shoulder, small caps, smart quotes, stress, stroke, swash, tail, terminal, thick/thin, tracking, typo, weight, word spacing, x-height.

Categories of type families (category/family/face)
1. Roman serif
2. Egyptian serif (slab or block serif)
3. Sans serif
4. Script (cursive)
5. Decorative (miscellaneous)
Roman and Egyptian differences
1. Serif ends
2. Brackets
3. Letterstroke width
Character manipulation
• Weight: light to bold or heavy
• Width: extended to condensed
Layout designations
• Read first: headline or display
• Read next: subhead
• Read next: body copy or text
Units of measurements
• Point: typefaces, 72 pts = 1"
• Picas: line length and column width, 6 picas = 1"
• Inch: column height
Spacing
Maintain character identity but relate as a unit.
View sideways or upside down to test.
• Kerning, letterspacing
• Word spacing
• Leading
• Ligature
Formats to set body copy
1. Justified
2. Flush left, ragged right
3. Flush right, ragged left
4. Centered
5. Asymmetrical
6. Wraparound
7. Image shape
Formats to capitalize display type
• ALL CAPS
• CAPS/SMALL CAPS
• all lower case
• First letter of first word only
• First Letter of Major Words
• First Letter Of All Words

Improving comprehension
Guideline suggestions:
• Black on white (or yellow)
• U&lc
• Large x-height
• FLRR setting
• Medium weight
• No extreme thick and thin
• Serif fonts
• Line length: 39 characters
• Tight letter and word spacing
• Layout orderly, aligned, and sequential
• Type and typography appropriate for reader, message, and medium

Type sampler project

Procedure
Study the typography of headlines and body copy to see letters and the setting of type as elements for communication. Find a clear sample for as many of the items in the Search List as you can. One ad or editorial layout may contain several items from the list. Mount them all neatly on paper. You may mount several samples on one page. Clearly label each sample. Design the presentation to most effectively communicate the samples.

Specs
• Page size, paper color, paper weight, layout composition, labeling format, and binding: reasonably appropriate.
• Samples must be from a newspaper or magazine ad or editorial (no textbooks, phone books, catalogs, nor design books).
• Show entire ad or article, not just a portion.
• Samples must be from copy or text. Logos do not count.
• Lists do not count as samples of centered or justified.

Evaluation
• All specs met precisely.
• Project turned in on time.
Grade 1, quantity:
Each correct item is worth 3.5 points (105 total, find 26 of 30 for an A).
Grade 2, presentation:
• Neat mounting and binding.
• Well designed page layout composition, title page/cover.
• Labeling shows efficient and clear communication of the intended message.

Purpose
• Understand terms and concepts of typography.
• Understand design elements of typography and setting type.
• Organize information for effective communication.
• Critique good and bad typography.
• Provide inspiration and influence.

Search List
__ Roman serif display face
__ Egyptian serif headline
__ Sans serif display type
__ Cursive display
__ Decorative headline

__ Body copy set justified: less than 12 pica column width
__ Justified body copy: set in 24 or more picas
__ Flush left, ragged right block of text
__ Flush right, ragged left body copy
__ Body copy set centered
__ Text set asymmetrical
__ Text: at least one side set wraparound
__ Text: image shape

__ Body copy set with very loose leading
__ Text copy with leading set very tight

__ Tight letterspaced display type
__ Loose letterspaced display type

__ Headline in an extended face
__ Condensed face headline

__ Display: caps/small caps, 6+ words
__ All upper case headline, 6+ words
__ All lower case headline, 6+ words
__ 6+ word headline with only the first letter of the first word capitalized
__ 6+ word headline with the first letter of all major words capitalized
__ 6+ word headline with first letter of every word capitalized

__ Ampersand
__ Any face set bold
__ Any type set in italics (not cursive)
__ Display type set in reverse
__ Distinct designed ligature

www.jamesrobertwatson.com/typogsampler.html